References 2008

onsdag 7 maj 2008

3701
2008:January
Thailand

Royal Parliamentarian
81







Interim
71

+10

Democratic parliamentarian government installed following elections
_______________________________________________________________________________

3702
2008:February
Chad

Uni-Revolutionary
16
2008:March




*Sub-Hierarchial*
37

-21

Emergency rule imposed.
_________________________________________________________________________________
3703
2008:February
Pakistan

Interim*
81
2008:March




Interim

Democratic parliamentarian elections held, forthcoming government formation
_______________________________________________________________________________________

3704
2008:February
Cuba


Sub-Hierarchal/Authoritarian
24




Dual-Totalitarian/Sub-Hierarchial
26

-2


Official president installed. Some power centralisation
___________________________________________________________________________________
3705
2008:February
Kosovo

Parliamentarian
98




Autonomy:Parliamentarian
98


Independence proclaimed. No actual change, Parliamentarian status still in force
________________________________________________

3706
2008:March
Russia

**Sub-Presidential**
51

2008:May




*Sub-Hierarchial*
37

+14


Expected possible power-transfer to pm

Disputed change *see 2008:May

__________________________________________

3707
2008:February
Kenya

Interim
77
2008:March





**Presidential**-
67


+10

Interim government following agreement
________________________________________________________

3708
2008:March
Kenya

Semi-Presidential
95
2008:April




Interim
77


+18

Expected coalition government of Kibaki and Odinga parties under Semi-Presidential form*

*Not actual change at this point, see April
_________________________________________________________________________________

3709
2008:March
Armenia

Uni-Revolutionary
16
2008:April




Semi-Presidential
95

-79


Emergency rule following massive protest in opposition to election result
_________________________________________________________________________
3710
2008:March
Malaysia

Royal Parliamentarian
81


Uni-Authoritarian
71


+10

Election a setback to government, indication of freely conducted. Democratic rule

____________________________________________________________________

3711
2008:March
Chad

*Sub-Hierarchial*




Uni-Revolutionary
16


Emergency rule lifted
_____________________________________________________________________

3712
2008:March
Armenia

Semi-Presidential
95




Uni-Revolutionary
16

+79

Emergency rule lifted
____________________________________________________________________

3713
2008:March
Belgium

Parliamentarian
98




Interim
88

+10

Normalisation following installation of new government
_____________________________________________________
3714
2008:April
Bhutan

Uni-Authoritarian/Royal Parliamentarian
71/81




Interim

Democratic government installed
____________________________________________________________
3715
2008:April
Kenya

Semi-Presidential
95




Interim
85

Installation of coalition government
_____________________________________________________

3716
2008:April
Zimbabwe

Interim
50

2008:June¨



*Hierarchial*
30

Interim status following election and win by opposition in parliament. Interim defines changed balance of power, violations by government obvious during electoral campaign.
_______________________________________________________

3717
2008:March
Pakistan

*Sub-Presidential*
91
2008:August



Interim
81

+10

Democratic parliamentarian government installed
________________________________________________________

3718
2008:February
Timur Leste

Uni-Revolutionary
16
2008:April



Uni-Presidential
96

-80

Emergency rule following rebel attack and assassination attempt on President and PM
_____________________________________________________________
3719
2008:April
Timur Leste

Uni-Presidential
96


Uni-Revolutionary
16


+80

Emergency rule lifted
___________________________________________________

3720
2008:May
Russia

Sub-Executivian

38



*Sub-Hierarchial*
37

+1

Installation of Medvedev as president and Putin in office as PM. Possible/likely shift of authority to cabinet.
__________________________________________________________________
3721
2008:May
Lebanon


Uni-Revolutionary
16
2008:May


Interim/Parliamentarian
88

-72

Heavy fightings between government and Hezbollah. Some military takeover by latter.
______________________________________________________________________________________

3722
2008:May
Lebanon

Interim
88
2008:May



Uni-Revolutionary
16

+72

End of hostilities following agreement between government and Hezbollah
________________________________________________________________________

3723
2008:May or 2008:January
Georgia

**Sub-Presidential**-/Uni-Authoritarian
68/71
2008:August



Sub-Presidential
94

-26/-23

Sligthly disputed elections held. Democratic credibility of Georgia questioned
Uncertain change
____________________________________________________________________

3724
2008:May
Lebanon

*Uni-Presidential*/*Semi-Presidential*
93/92


Interim
83/82

+10

Full normalisation after succesful election and installation of Michel Suleimann as president.
___________________________________________________________________________

3725
2008:May
Equatorial Guinea

Hierarchial
13

*Hierarchial*
30

-17

Rule of Nguema turns even more absolutist as ruling party PDGE receives all but one seat in legislative election.
Existing political opposition in reality institutionally eliminated.
______________________________________________________________________________

3726
2008:May
Nepal


Republic:Interim
85
2008:July



Pseudo-Parliamentarian
80

+5
Republic established after abolishing monarchy. Interim rule awaiting electon and installation of president
____________________________________________________________________________________

3727
2008:June:
Macedonia

Uni-Authoritarian/Nano-Presidential
71/97


Nano-Presidential
97


-26


Very questionable and unfortunate change. Parliamentarian elections held, classified by observers as not fully satisfactory. However the political violations are unclear and doubtful, violence played a significant part.
__________________________________________________________________________________

3728
2008:June
Zimbabwe

Hierarchial/*Absolutism*
13/9


*Interim*
50/16


-37/-41


Re-election and installation of Mugabe following illegitimate elections where opposition candidate Tsvangirai withdrew. Initially full power in Mugabe as sole institution, pending inauguration of MDC controlled parliament.
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________

3729
2008:July
Nepal

Parliamentarian
98


Interim
85

+13


Succesful presidential elections. Yadav elected president. Full implementation of parliamentarian status when government is formed and installed.
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

3730
2008:July
Tonga

Royal Parliamentarian/Royalism
81/64




Royal Authoritarian
40

+41/+24


Monarch transfers chief executive powers to cabinet. George Topou V assumes throne. Uncertainity of parliamentarian form?
____________________________________________________________________________________________

3731
2008:July
Venezuela


**XPresidential**-
58*



*Hierarchial*-
35*

+23

Expiration of 18 months extraordinary rule of Hugo Chavez. No news or intelligence confirming, only relating to January 2007 deal.
______________________________________________________________________________________________
3732
2008:August
Mauritania


Revolutionary
6


Semi-Presidential
95

-89

Coup d'etat. President Abdellahni captured and deposed by military junta, lead of former leadership of army. Military council claims leadership.
____________________________________________________________________________________________________

3733
2008:August
Georgia

*Uni-Revolutionary*
16
2008:August


**Sub-Presidential**-
68

-52*

Uncertain change! State of Emergency declared by parliament due to severe security situation. With political institutions still functioning, change of status is unclear.
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2008:August
South Ossetia

Russian rule:§Revolutionary

6*


Sub-Absolutism?
8

-2*

Russian troops gains control of South Ossetia
_______________________________________________________________________________

2008:August
Abkhazia

Russian rule:§Revolutionary

6*



Sub-Authoritarian/*Sub-Hierarchial*
45/34

-39/-31*

Russian troops gains control over Abkhazia
__________________________________________________________________________

3734
2008:August
Pakistan


Interim:Parliamentarian
98/88



*Uni-Presidential*
93


+5/-5

Resignation of president Musharraf. Mian Soomro appointed acting(provisional) president. Strengthen parliamentarian control
____________________________________________________________________________________________________

3735
2008:August
Georgia


**Sub-Presidential**-
68



Uni-Revolutionary
16


+52


Uncertain change.Normalisation and return to constitutional political situation under president Saakasvili.
____________________________________________________________________________________

2008:August
South Ossetia


Uni-Revolutionary
16


Russian rule:§Revolutionary


Mrtial law declared by president Kokotiy. Government dismissed.
____________________________________________________________________________________

3736
2008:August
Zimbabwe



*Sub-Hierarchial*-/**XPresidential**-
57/61
2008:September



Hierarchial/Absolutism
13

+44/+48


Convening of zimbabwean parliament with MDC majority and chairman. Uncertain classification on how to coincide with ZANU-PF President Mugabe. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________


3737
2008:August
South Ossetia


Independence:Uni-Revolutionary
16



Autonomy:Uni-Revolutionary
16


-



Independence recognised by Russia, unlikely respons from international community. De Facto independence clear since recognised by Russia as a supreme power of territory. South Ossetia history will soon be added to project, together with other autonomous, self-governing territories of the world. (Without list numbering)
_______________________________________________________________________________________________


3738
2008:August
Abkhazia


Independence:*Sub-Hierarchial*
37



Autonomy:*Sub-Hierarchial*
37


-


Independence recognised by Russia, unlikely respons from international community. De Facto independence clear since recognised by Russia as a supreme power of territory. South Ossetia history will soon be added to project, together with other autonomous, self-governing territories of the world. (Without list numbering)
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________

3739
2008:September
Angola


Interim
74*
2008:September



Sub-Absolutism
8


+66*


Parliamentarian elections held, first since 1992. Restores parliament as legitimate institution. Electins slightly disputed but generally considered democratic
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

3740
2008:September
Pakistan


*Uni-Presidential*
93


Interim:Parliamentarian
88*

+5*

Asif Ali Zardari of PPP elected president by parliament. Presidential authority to be authorised according to 1997 constitutional amendment.
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________

3741
2008:September
Angola


**Presidential**-
67


Interim
74*

-7


Governing MPLA dominant in elections. Reported 81% raises doubt of full democratic legitimacy. Without systematic fraud the outcome of elections may be considered as sligthly disputed. *Will take effect as parliament convenes after elections*
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________

3742
2008:September
Zimbabwe

Semi-Presidential/Interim
95


*Sub-Hierarchial*-/**XPresidential**_
55/64


+40/+31


Coalition government of MDC and ZANU-PF agreed and formed. Mugabe president, Tsvangirai PM. ruling over coalition government
__________________________________________________________________________________________________

3743
2008:August
Maldives


**Presidential**
50

*Sub-Hierarchial*
37

+13

Revision of constitution opening up for contested and multiparty elections. Fully implemented following elections in ctober, unless change of leadership.
___________________________________________________________________________________________

3744
2008:September
South Africa


Interim
78*


*Presidential*
88*


-10*


Resignation of President Mbeki following vote of Non-confidence by ANC. Kgalema Mothlanthe succeeds as provisional president awaiting coming elections.
____________________________________________________________________________________________________
3745
2008:September
Mauritania

Interim/Absolutism





Revolutionary
6


Army coup leaders appoints civilian cabinet to rule Mauritania awaitin elections. Laghdaf made prime minister.g new
___________________________________________________________________________________
3746
2008:October
Maldives



**Presidential**-
68




**Presidential**
50

+18


Long time serving president Gayoom accepts defeat in second-round presidential election.
Democratic breakthrough of Maldives as Mohammed Nasheed wins office.

_____________________________________________________________________________________
3747
2008:December
Thailand



Interim
71*




Royal Parliamentarian
81

-10*


Court ruling defeats government.Wongsawat forced to resign over fraud charges.
____________________________________________________________________________________
3748
2008:December
Thailand




Royal Parliamentarian
81




Interim
71*

Vejjajiva elected and installed prime minister by parliament
______________________________________________________________________________
3749
2008:December
Canada



Interim:Semi-Executivian





Parliamentarian
98


Harper government suspends parliament to obstruct vote of non-confidence. Uncertain classification.
__________________________________________________________________________________
3750
2008:December
Turkmenistan



*Sub-Hierarchial*/*Sub-Hierarchial
37



Sub-Hierarchial
24


+13

Elections to parliament held. First conducted with parties allowed besides TDP(Turkmen Democratic Party). Outcome uncertain,
________________________________________________________________________________________
3751
2008:December
Bangladesh



Interim
41*




Uni-Revolutionary/Absolutism
16


+25*

Martial law lifted by military backed government as election campaign starts.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
3752
2008:December
Guinea



Revolutionary
6



*Sub-Hierarchial*
37



-31


Military coup and takeover following death of President Lansana Conte
_____________________________________________________________________________________
3753
2008:December
Guinea



Sub-Revolutionary/Absolutism
7/5



Revolutionary
6


Kabine Komara installed as head of Government by military Junta.(civilian?)
__________________________________________________________________________
3754
2008:October ?
Zimbabwe



*Sub-Hierarchial*-
55




SSemi-Presidential:Interim
95*




Breakdown of coalition talks/agreement between MDC and ZANU-PF. Mugabe in control of supreme executive power.
_____________________________________________________________________________________






































Thailand:http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7212516.stm
Thailand:http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7229848.stm
Chad:http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/7245966.stm
Pakistan:http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7249455.stm
Cuba:http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7261204.stm
Kosovo:http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7249034.stm
Kosovo*:http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7339239.stm
Russia:http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/7274162.stm
Kenya:http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/7268903.stm
Armenia:http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7272299.stm
Malaysia:http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7284682.stm
Chad: Add
Armenia:http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7306859.stm
Belgium:http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7306180.stm
Bhutan:http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7310832.stm
Bhutan:http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7313325.stm Add article on gov.
Kenya:http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/7351842.stm
Zimbabwe:http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/7326968.stm
Pakistan:http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7312116.stm
Timur Leste:http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7239306.stm
Timur Leste:http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7372512.stm
Russia:http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7386940.stm
Russia:http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7389248.stm
Lebanon:http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/7391600.stm
Lebanon:http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/7411835.stm
Georgia:http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7416570.stm
Lebanon:http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/7418953.stm
Nepal: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7422900.stm
Macedonia: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/7431742.stm
Zimbabwe: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/7479853.stm
Nepal: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7517148.stm
Tonga: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7530209.stm
Mauritania: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/7544834.stm
Pakistan: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7567451.stm
Zimbabwe: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/7580366.stm
South Ossetia: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/7582181.stm
Abkhazia: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/7582181.stm
Angola:http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/7602556.stm
Angola:http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/7603735.stm
Pakistan:http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7605430.stm
Zimbabwe:http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/7611459.stm
Maldives:http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7547725.stm
South Africa: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/7634845.stm
Mauritania: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/7592038.stm
Maldives: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7696656.stm
Maldives: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7721335.stm
Thailand: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7759960.stm
Thailand: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7795055.stm
Canada: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7765206.stm
Turkmenistan:http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7782058.stm
Bangladesh: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7785919.stm
Guinea: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/7796902.stm
Guinea: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/7804306.stm